NAEP samples each state, and usually we don't know which districts were chosen for the sample. For 2009, we know that Jefferson County was included, and I think we can be confident that its students were counted as city residents. We don't know, though, what other city districts were included (Fayette? Bowling Green? Covington?) or what districts were sampled as suburban, town, or rural locations.
How do we know about the Jefferson County part? The Courier-Journal reported that:
In Kentucky, 7,489 fourth- and eighth-graders from 316 schools were randomly selected to take the test.
Of that number, approximately 2,800 students in both grade levels from Jefferson County Public Schools were tested, said Bob Rodosky, director of testing and accountability for the district.
“I am really encouraged by the state’s results. and I would like to believe that Jefferson County had something to do with the rise of those scores,” he said.
NAEP typically doesn’t break down test scores by district.
However, Jefferson County is one of several urban school districts that participates in the Trial Urban District Assessment — those district’s test scores will be released in May.